North London Tree Surgeons
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05 Nov 2021
Whitewashing Trees

Protecting and preparing your fruit trees for winter

Numerous layers of cracked and dead bark accumulate on large branches and stems of aged trees. And both are of no use at all. It actually could inadvertently do some harm, causing substantial damage.
All these crevices, clefts and detached loose scales of bark are the best place for stockpiling of various infections, predominantly, fungal diseases. Also, all these places are an appropriate shelter for winter seasons for things like eggs, pupae, larvae or adult bugs of many kinds.

Bark peeling

How much cleaner and more productive your garden could be the next year If you managed to get rid of unwanted pests. In this regard at the end of October or in early November, after some rains have fallen, when the bark gets soaked enough, you should wait for a spell of good weather and take advantage to terminate them. On such conditions you wouldn’t have to hunt one particular insect or one specific swarm of bugs. It would be much easier to terminate them all together whilst they hide in roughness and clefts of the bark. Place some sheet of fabric, canvas cloth or roofing felt at the base of the trunk within a radius of about 1-1,5 m in all directions. You’ll need a wire brush and a special scraper for the bark peeling.
It is important to scrape off and remove all rotten bark onto canvas at the base of the tree so that pieces of infected with fungi bark don’t fall onto soil, potentially spreading the infections.

It is also very important to not damage live and new bark under layers of rotten. Otherwise, the whole exercise will be counterproductive, as you will be removing potential pests and simultaneously become a real one yourself. Burn all the produced waste comprising of rotten bark and insects.
Peeling the old rotten bark off is highly important operation, but it is not the only way of getting rid of the winter time invaders and diseases. This is also very important as it helps to improve gaseous interchange, respiration of the bark, and thereby increasing, at least a little, viability of the plant.

However, never try to peel off the bark from young trees. It usually is in its best condition and when interfered with you do nothing but harm to it.

Whitewashing the boles

Educational material
Whitewashed trees in garden

After You have peeled off all the old rotten bark from the plants you should whitewash them. Most allotment gardeners whitewash trees with timing to coincide with the beginning of spring or with the first access to the garden with a purpose to make the garden look beautiful and festive. It is certainly nice and praiseworthy. Along with that the main function of whitewashing is a method of disinfection; it protects the plant from bronzing and frost-cracks. Such troubles most often occur in periods from late January to late March, when the temperature on the sunny and shady sides of a trunk sometimes differ a dozen or two degrees. Therefore, we strongly recommend you to whitewash trunks and bases of large stems in autumn. Never do whitewashing of trees in winter, when gardens are usually snow-blanketed and you need to dig up tree for whitewashing and after the work is done have to put snow back to protect your tree. For whitewashing you should use a commercially available proprietary mix. However, you can prepare the whitewash yourself. For that you should take 10 liters of water 2,5 kilograms of lime, 0.5 kilograms of copper sulfate for disinfection and 0.1 kilograms of carpenters’ glue for the whitewash to adhere to the tree.
You should whitewash not only the trees that have bark peeling off, but also young ones. And what is more, the young trunks should be whitewashed on a first-priority basis. They are susceptible to sunburns and frost-cracks.

You can find some more useful information on this topic here

Best wishes and good luck with your gardening.

03 Jun 2019
Cherry tree in a garden planted

The right way of bedding out fruit trees

We’ve got a new gardening season at the threshold, and each of the landowners, whether he’s got a small or large plot, is building long-term plans for its settlement. It might seem that for allotment gardeners, whose sites have long been treated and planted, this process is much easier, but it’s not as they’ve got heavy workload every year. But for novice landowners everything is much more difficult. They should put a lot of efforts and work much before they get real visible results.
If You’ve got untreated plot of land, first of all You should uproot it from the wild plants, treat and cultivate the soil. And what is more newcomers usually plan some constructions on this stage. New owners of more or less treated land plots are usually in a hurry to plant it with the maximum of different cultures immediately after the acquisition. Frequently they unknowingly assume on their allotments many severe mistakes, which professionals then have to correct for a long time that sometimes take more than one year. Any rush in this case is no good. Before mastering the land plot, You should properly plan it with due consideration of the orientation relative to the cardinal directions, topography, location of close laid communications and other factors.
Try to imagine where and what should be located. You should decide where You will place utility zone, zone for premises (if there are no such ones), chose a place for garden beds and various fruit plants. Try to make a plan and put it on paper. Looking at your sketches try to imagine how you leave the house to fetch water, opening the greenhouse on your way to the well to give it airing and then, without going far from home, set about weeding the vegetable beds. Only after You have decided what is the most convenient alternate layout for You, proceed to the selection of fruit crops. Of course, the matter is not that simple, and even experienced and highly skilled designers sometimes spend much more time than a single day making a proper plan for the site. But, in our opinion, it is much more easer for each separate land owner to adapt his place of work and rest to his own dreams and plans.
Choosing a right assortment of fruit crops is also no simple matter. Lucky are those landowners who own more than 10 acres of land, in such a case, they can purchase and plant anything they want. But if your land plot is small and every piece of it is for a count, what should You do if You’d like to grow for your family the maximum number of crops?
The main mistake many allotment gardeners are making is that they are trying to buy as many seedlings as possible and plant the land plot with them massively. Being in the excitement they buy up everything without distinction. Please don’t try to grasp the immensity. At first, this tactics, of course, will bring some results and the harvest will be plenteous. But You should not forget that over the time plants need much more living space than in the early years, their need for nutrients, lighting and so on will change a lot. On the contrary, thick planting over the years will cause the harvest getting worse: the fruits will be small and tasteless.
While choosing planting material You should give preference to the best brands, both new and old proven ones. It is especially important to select promising cultivars which are recommended for the area where your garden plot is located. There is no point in bringing plants from other regions. So many disappointments get allotment gardeners in central regions, purchasing seedlings from the neighboring more southern countries. Strong-looking seedlings frequently fail to get accustomed to new conditions. The first winter would be fatal for this kind of planting material. Large majority of southern cultivars, surviving in the northern, eastern and western regions of the country, get not enough heat and the fruits are completely tasteless. Fruits of the northern cultivars ripen in the southern regions prematurely and lose the ability to storage. So, is it worth spending time and energy on growing those products, which You wouldn’t eat?
If your land plot is small it would be much more advantageous to put on it one or two cultivars of apple trees with different ripening terms. For example, the old and proven early ripening cultivars would be rather suitable, such as Melba, Papirovka. Later ripening cultivars appropriate for the long term storage are Sparzan and other. Not far from them You can bed out two or three bushes of edible honeysuckle of different and preferably not too high cultivars. Light penumbra of apple crown would not hurt them. But a shadow of large trees over the years will surely appear. Near to each other can coexist two bushes of black currant (with different ripening terms) or one bush of red and another of white current. We believe that You can always find a space for a couple of small Japanese quince bushes. Having chosen cultivars blossoming with white and scarlet red flowers, You will surely decorate your garden and collect the nutritious fruitage, which will implement you during the winter season with much-needed vitamin C.
Gooseberries would perfectly accommodate between plum trees. If You’d love to pick berries for a long period, You should select a red-, yellow- or green-fruited cultivars with different ripening terms and as the result from midsummer to autumn You’ll be able to relish not only delicious, but also very curative fruits of gooseberry.

Gooseberries  and fruit trees
Gooseberries are simply fantastic

We strongly discourage planting the land plot with many plum trees. Firstly, most of them give a huge amount of root-shoots, which You’ll have to fight endlessly. Secondly, in a fruitful year correctly chosen cultivars will give You enough fruits not only for feeding your family, but for canning and treating your friends, relatives and neighbors.
For children and for home treatment of colds it is necessarily to bed out somewhere near the fence a few bushes of a macrocarpous varietal raspberry. If for any reason You don’t like raspberry, try to bed out horticultural dewberry.
To an utmost regret such a much beloved by lots of people cultures as cherry will not produce crops at any land plot. That’s why before buying seedlings You should ascertain whether the land plot has a suitable location and what is more important, whether the soil is suitable for this crop (cherry categorically refuses to bear fruit on peaty soils). We recommend to decide on such cultivars as Lyubskaya, Vladimirskaya and Chocolate. These cultivars are winter-hardy, disease-resistant and bear fruit every year.
If desired, You can bed out pear trees with different ripening terms such as Lada – a cultivar ripening in summer, Chizhovskyaya – a cultivar ripening in late summer, and others.
And one more tip for You: do not bed out large spreading trees in the middle of the land plot, otherwise later it will shade the most of the plot. Try to bed out large trees and shrubs keeping close to the periphery of the plot. Please don’t forget that you still need a place for making cultivation beds for vegetable and herbaceous crops, strawberries. For these crops You should first of all pick up the most lightened place on the land plot with good soil conditions. At the southern wall of the house You can bed out grapes or any other mostly heat-loving plants.
Try to allocate a small site for recreation area where you could swing in a hammock or sit with your guests. In this area, You’d better try to use a decorative tree crops and perennial floricultural crop. You can get wants and needs met and incorporate in composition some decorative horticultural, such as barberry, viburnum, mespilus, hawthorn, sweet briar. In this matter everything depends on your taste and preferences. And of course, in the vicinity of recreation area You should not forget to bed out shrubs beautifully blooming and smelling during flowering – jasmine, lilac, silverberry elaeagnus and other.
You can always get in touch with us should you find yourself in a need of an advice.

Best wishes

02 Apr 2016
Trees lawn and shrubs

Trees and shrubs on a lawn

Tree surgeon’s ideas on harmony between trees, shrubs and lawn


There is something incredibly attractive about combination of trees and shrubs Trees lawn and shrubson a lawn, so You should try to grow some in your garden. Trees lend variety to a landscape making it more interesting in addition they provide shade, protect and attract birds to the garden. A tree or even a lone bush bedded out on a lawn become the visual center of it and distract attention from the monotonous green space. Another important strong point of trees and shrubs is that, when they strike root they do not need any special care.


Choosing locations for trees on a lawn


Perhaps the most difficult thing about choosing a tree is the necessity to decide in favor of one or two cultivars from the myriad of commercially available. Nevertheless, it should be done: one visible from all sides tree looks most impressive. If You still want to bed out several trees it would be much better to allocate them in one compact group and not to scatter them all over the lawn.

A lonely tree on a lawn looks quite picturesque, but choosing a suitable location can sometimes be difficult. Please remember carefully that You shouldn’t plant it exactly in the middle of the lawn as it will look unfavorable there. If you don’t plan to arrange the rest of the garden around the chosen tree, it may be better to put the tree near a border.

From some coigne of vantage, the house or patio, peer at the lawn and the space behind it. Do you see anything You would prefer to hide? Do the windows of the neighboring house look over your garden? Try to allocate the tree in a way to cover up an undesired view from the window and at the same time to hide You from strangers’ glances. Otherwise, if your garden has picturesque surroundings, two or three properly allocated trees will help to combine your site with the surrounding landscape. But in the city a tree standing on the edge of a lawn creates an illusion of vast landscaped areas hiding behind it, even if your property is situated on a dusty city street.

Nota bene

For those areas of the lawn where You want to achieve more natural look, cultivating tall grass, bulbs or wild field flowers, try to avoid using exotic or hybrid trees. Trees and shrubs need to look natural and thus more seamless.


Deciduous ornamental trees


For a small lawn You should choose a tree that will look attractive, if not the whole Ornamental tree and lawnyear long, at least most or some of it. It is rather insufficient if the chosen tree has just one decorative feature, such as  beautiful blossom, fruitage or autumnal coloring. Chinese sward (Cornuskousa var. chinensis) is an amazing tree, which will delight You with large white flowers at the early summer, with red fruits later and with crimson foliage in autumn. Furthermore, it has a beautiful scaly rind, and expands upward and outward equally well.

Many cultivars of crab-apple trees (Malus) blossom very beautifully as well, and later on please an eye with the view of fruits; they are most suitable for planting on small lawns. Trees of Sorbus cashmiriana are small and sprawling with dark green pinnate leaves, white flowers, and later on they yield pink or white berries.

Trees with interesting unusual foliage such as acer griseum, northern maple (acer pensylvanicum), paper birch (especially Betula utilis var. jacquemotii) and sakura (Prunus serrula) look great on a lawn as well. All these trees do not grow too fast, do not have very dense crowns (grass would love it), and they are not too big and therefore are ideal for lawns.

There are not many trees that could compare in beauty of autumn leaves with weeping maple (Acer palmatum), when its paw-shaped leaves turn scarlet. Many cultivars of cherry trees (Prunus), such as Okate and Sargent (Prunus sargentii), can also boast a bright autumn foliage and beautiful blossom.

To the most space-saving trees could be relevant willow-leaf pear (Pyrus salicfolia) with a round crown, silvery leaves and cream-colored blossom and its weeping sub-type Pendula, and acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) Umbraculifera with beautiful leaves. Choose these particular cultivar if you want to have a small tree, because other representatives of the species are much larger.


Evergreen ornamental trees


Evergreen trees, especially those ones with variegated or golden-yellow foliage, contrasting with grass, also look very impressive on the lawn. Taxus baccata Fastigiata is a straight columnar yew tree with bright yellow foliage. It grows slowly and is well suited for the lawn, as well as Picea pungens Koster – a lovely peg-shaped fir tree with a silver-blue crown. Pinus sylvestris Watereri – is a low, slow-growing pine with hard blue-gray needles and broad crown.

You cannot go wrong if you choose for your lawn an evergreen Pittosporum tenuifolium Silver Queen – a space-saving tree with a round crown and a gray-green leaves with a white rim.

One of the best evergreen trees is an arbutus x andrachnoides it has beautiful reddish-brown rind, glittering green foliage, white flowers, interesting fruits and stretching up crown.


Soil  at the base of the tree’s trunk


When planning to plant a tree on the lawn, You should remember to cut the grass around the tree trunk and that in autumn the tree will shed its leaves.

Base of tree and lawnThe problem of cutting the grass could be solved by leaving all bare section of soil around the trunk. Just let it be wide enough to ensure that you will not damage the tree trunk while cutting the grass on the lawn with the mower. At first, whilst the tree is small, you may plant small items around the tree’s base, but as the tree develops it will become too dry for most plants as well as  tree foliage will serve as an umbrella blocking all the sunshine. You should choose the plants very carefully, should you still desire to plant them under mature trees.
Weeping trees with branches hanging to the ground, such as the weeping birch or cherry, growing alone on a lawn, look very graceful and very popular. However, due to their shape, they create a very dense shade, which, of course, adversely affects the grass growing under them.


Planting plants under trees


Trees with a lightsome openwork foliage are ideal for planting as subordinate crop since they permit light through in a proper way. Himalayan birch (Betula utilis var. jacquermontii) is especially good for this, as it has small-size and sparse foliage. However, most of the trees give a deep shadow, and therefore the choice of plants for planting beneath them is limited. The most reasonable decision in this case is planting spring bulbous cultivars, which are able to grow up and finish blossoming before dense foliage is being formed on the tree. Shade-demanding ground-cover plants feel very comfortably under such trees as well. If you grow evergreen trees on your lawn, it is likely that you’ll have to confine them to their own decorative effect.

You should not plant any bushes or large plants under a lonely tree growing on a lawn, as they will merge and distort the silhouette of the trunk of the tree, but different climbers would just decorate it. However, You should keep in mind that too strong and viable climbing plant can strangle a small tree and You should take that into account, while making decision.


Shade-resistant plants that could be planted under trees


Bulbous cultivars



Aconite also known as eranthis hyemalis;

Adder-grass or fawn lily, or trout lily, or dog’s tooth violet also known as eritronium;

Snowdrop also known as Galanthus;

Bluebell or eastern camass, or wild hyacinth also known as Scilla hyacinthoides;

Birthroot or wake robin also known as trillium.




Bergenia or giant rock foil;

Digitalis or foxglove, or finger-flower also known as deadman’s bells;

Epimedium or rowdy lamb herb, or barrenwort, or bishop’s hat, or fairy wings, or horny goat weed also known as Yin Yang Huo;

Wood spurge (Euphorbia amygdaloides).


Climbing plants


Actinidia kolomikta or climbing perch also known as anabas testudineus;

Virgins-bower or clematis large-leaved, or leather flower, or traveller’s joy, or Jessamine also known as or clematis alpine;

Cremocarp or eccremocarpus scabrous;

Common or wild hops also known as humulus lupulus;

Honeyberry or honeysuckle, or woodbine, or caprifoil, or button tree also known as lonicera;


Indian cress or nasturtium also known as tropaeolum majus.


Shrubs on lawns


If You do not have enough space on your lawn for a tree, plant a bush, or maybe even two or three. Some bushes are stretching upwards and, if properly cut, will look like a tree with multiple trunks. A lawn is a perfect place to plant your favorite bush, so you’ll be able to admire it from all sides, and it will not have to fight with its neighbors for light, water and nourishment.

The same advantages and disadvantages are inherent for shrubs growing on lawns as for trees, with the only difference that they don’t have clear-cut trunks, which means that the foliage is much lower and grass suffers more from it. Two main problems you may encounter: grass can grow too high, because you will not be able to approach it with the mower, or it might simply perish in the dense shade. In the first case, a simple scissors could solve your problem. And in the second You’ll have to clean up around the bush trunk and either make it increasingly wider as the bush grows, or regularly cut the bush to keep it in the same boundaries. You should make the choice with due account to the type of shrub and its immunity to frequent pruning.


Ornamental shrubs for lawns recommended by our tree surgeons


Juneberry or bilberry, shadbush, or sugar berry, or service tree, or juice peer also known as amelanchier canadensis;

Cianotus Skylark;

Zante-wood or smoke bush, or Aaron’s beard, or common smoke tree, or wig-tree, or chittamwood also known as Cotinus coggygria;

Royal Purple;

Daphne mezereum or daphne balmy Aureomarginata;

Mock orange or syringe, or philadelphus belle etoile;

Pieris beautiful Wakehurst;

Arrowwood or viburnum, or white-rod, or guilder rose, or white hazel tree also known as raisin folded Mariesii.


Planting and fertilization


The best time for planting shrubs or trees is the period between spring and autumn and in some milder European countries may plant in winter though saplings can get damaged by sudden and prolonged frosts. Ornamental plants and bushes need other fertilizers, than lawn grass requires, so they should be fed separately. Grass requires fertilizers with a high nitrogen level for healthy and beautiful leaves, but for trees and shrubs such fertilizer also stimulates the growth of leaves at the expense of flowers and fruit. They need a balanced fertilizer with equal doses of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, but if they are going to blossom or the fruits are kerning on them a fertilizer should have increased level of potassium. You should put the fertilizer into the ground around the trunk using manure fork and irrigate it properly in a way that water would reach the root zone. Remove all the weeds from the area under the tree or bush.

If a fruit tree is growing on your lawn, You should either leave a wider clear space around the tree trunk or not fertilize the grass around the tree, otherwise you will soon discover that the tree bears much fewer flowers and fruits.


Leaves and leaf humus


Putrefying leaves emit a lot of heat, so they should be removed from the lawn in autumn, as soon as they fall off. Collect the leaves into compost piles. Leaves will gradually turn into leaf mold – an excellent soil conditioner for a garden. Leaves should be kept in those bags for at least six months, so put them somewhere away. Before storing, you should soak the leaves properly to aid decomposition.


How to apply fertilizer using a scatterer


Dig a planting pit in the soil about 1,2 meters in diameter. It must be at least four times wider than the diameter of the pot in which the tree grows or a soil clod surrounding the roots. First, remove the greensward and fold it in a stack, and then put the soil dug out from the pit in a wheelbarrow or on a sheet of plastic, not to spoil the lawn. The hole should be about one and a half times deeper than the pot.

If the compost around the roots is completely dry, submerse the pot in a bucket of water to moisten it through. Put some garden compost or any other organic fertilizer (for example, a couple of buckets of good humus manure) at the bottom of the dug pit. Inter-fuse it with the soil using a manure fork. Put some organics in the soil taken from the pit as well, as a tree should be planted not just into the garden soil, but in a moisture well-retentive soil mixture.

If the roots of the tree have completely filled the pot, stir them up a bit. Put the tree or shrub in the center of the pit so that the root clod would be placed at the ground level; add to the bottom some compost-soil mixture, if necessary. Fill the pit with soil and compost, tamping it carefully.

You should prop up trees with pegs for the first two years after planting them unless and until they take root well. Be careful not to damage the roots, hammer a peg into the ground at height of 1-1,2 meters over the soil level and at an angle of 45 ° to the ground, and close enough to the tree to snap it to the trunk. The top of the peg should be directed toward the prevailing wind. You should irrigate the tree or the bush abundantly – at least 2-3 buckets of water.

For any questions related to topics above or any other enquiries, contact our tree surgeons


22 Nov 2015
Winter tree pruning

Fruit trees surgery in winter

Temperature of air and soil are the overarching factors of growth and development of above ground and root systems of fruit trees. All of this needs to be considered when evaluating overall heath of the tree and before we start any tree surgery.

Plants handling in winter

Atmospheric temperature affects the chemical processes and movement of substances inside the plant, such as evaporation of water from leaves microbiological processes in the soil and so on. Not only a frost-free period of a certain duration, but also an appropriate temperature changing rhythm over the whole year are essential for the right development of plants. Consequently, gradual cooling during the fall time allows the trees to prepare for winter dormancy. Initially, at a temperature from 0° to 6° C, in plant organs large carbohydrates (e.g. starch) are transubstantiate to simple ones (e.g. sugar). Then, at a temperature from 0° to -12° C, when water passes from the cells to the inter-cellular spaces, a reserve of organic matter “for tough times” is forming. After that, the plant settles down into dormancy state. You should note that the deeper the plant’s state of relative calm, the higher its hardiness.
By the way, it is necessary to distinguish between these agronomic terms, as the frost tolerance and winter hardiness. You should keep all this information in mind selecting cultivars of fruit trees for the garden.
Frost tolerance is a peculiarity of a plant to adapt to the impact of low temperatures in a proper way.
Winter hardiness is an ability of plants to withstand the whole range of different winter conditions: a certain moisture level of soil, strength of wind etc. (Experts specified that cold-hardy cultivars of fruit trees are settling down into dormancy state much deeper than others.).
We recommend to pomiculturists to keep a diary of observations – to record all the change bits in fruit and berry plants life, as well as the terms and the nature of gardening.
Inclement winters, if not destroying fruit plants, but shortening its lives. But more often buds and branches are suffering from frost. Notably that it predominantly happens if the plants hadn’t been prepared for the winter in a proper way. For example, fruit trees have plentifully fructified and haven’t managed to save up enough spare substances, or ensuing a summer-autumn drought season have prematurely dropped all the leaves, or its foliage has been damaged by pests and diseases. To keep out of it, your garden needs a competent tree surgeon care which is the only way plants can make it through the winter safely.

Weather and Harvest

The growth of fruit plants is mostly affected by the temperature during the spring, especially in the morning.

The nutrient enrichment is mostly affected by the weather in mid-summer and autumn period.
Moderate daytime temperatures are exerting salutary influence over the processes of photosynthesis (enrichment with organic matter). Conversely, high daytime temperatures (e.g. such as were documented during the summer of 2010) are aggravating the performance of the leaves and enrichment with organic matter. Hence You get a notable shortage of the crop.
The fruits are ripening better on condition of the average temperatures in August and September are elevated.
The most favorable conditions for the growth of wood if the average temperature in late fall is lowered and in early winter it is close to 0°C.

Frost, warmth, heat

We can sort fruit plants by its particularity about heat to be arranged in such an order.
North Zone: rowan – bird cherry – cherry crab – berry crops.
Central area: apple – cherry – plum – pear.
South Zone: cherry – quince – apricot – walnut – pecan – hazelnut – almonds – peach.
Subtropical Zone: pistachio – chestnut – Eastern persimmon – figs – olive – feijoa – tangerine – orange – lemon – avocado.

Average terms of blooming of bourgeons and blossoming of fruit and berry plants


blooming of bourgeons average term Fluctuations in the timing
The earliest The Latest
apple May 5th April 24th May 24th
pear May 7th April 22th May 24th
rowan April 29th April 15th May 7th
gooseberry May 17th April 25th June 2d
blackcurrant May 18th May 1st June 1st
pears May 21st May 5th June 4th
cherry May 22d May 6th June 5th
plums May, 23rd May 5th June 8th
apple May 24th May 6th June 6th
rowan May 29th April 11th June 17th
raspberry June 12th May 23rd July 1st
viburnum June 13th May 17th July 2d







23 Oct 2015
Pruning young trees

Caring for young fruit trees

Caring for young fruit trees

If You got a garden of young fruit trees, You should take especially reverent care for the trees as they need constant careful attention. Of course, if You put enough necessary efforts the harvest will not take long.

Plants bed out during the last season may fail to strike root for various reasons. Besides, any shortcomings in bedding out frequently affect process of further rooting and growth of the trees. It’ll be much easier to rectify these deficiencies while your fruit trees are young.  This could also be a great time to do any tree pruning at this stage.
Firstly You should take up higher every too much sunken tree. For this purpose, You should dig a trench around the trunk at a distance of 35-40 cm from it with the same depth. Then two men carefully lift up the root ball with shovels, pouring under it the nourishing soil in order that the plant should be bed out at the correct level. Still You shouldn’t overdo it, as the root collar and the roots should not be bared.
The lean of a tree is another imperfection coming from not properly puddled soil in the landing pit after bedding out the plant. The fix of the problem is simple, until the tree hasn’t grown too much. For adjusting lean tree it should be carefully pulled in the right direction via tying it to a firmly driven stake.

To straighten crooked boles (trunks) or soboles a rail should be firmly tied to the bole at the sweep area. In the summer as far as the bole would be thickening to avoid constrictions the garter should be loosen. A sweep of the bole of young plants could be fully corrected for 1-2 vegetation season.

The circles around the tree bole

On condition of proper growth by the end of the first year the roots of a fruit tree occupy the entire area of the landing pit and expand even little beyond it.

Hereafter annual growth of the root system across the whole diameter could measure up to 50-80 cm. For this reason, in the second year after bedding out diameter of the circles around the boles of apple or pear trees are usually adjusted to 2 m. With the excrescence of the crown the around the boles should be increased annually.

Throughout the spring and summer the soil around the boles should be loosen with rake to a depth of not more than 5 cm in order not to injure the delicate suction roots.

While autumn leaf fall the soil in circles should be dug up with overturning of the furrow slices. For pome fruit trees – to a depth of 15 cm, for stone fruit trees – up to 12 cm, without breaking the clods. Near the bole soil should be dug up shallow. Alongside with digging You should make a mulch of manure and peat.

In spring the soil in circles around boles should be dug up, as early as possible, and no deeper than 6-8 cm, without overturning of the furrow slices. Then the soil should be well loosen, in order that there was no large clods. On the old, well-developed soils only loosening the soil in circles around boles restricted to a depth of 7-10 cm can be recommended.

Digging the soil in circles around boles is highly recommended to perform with garden fork as it less damaging method for the tree roots.

The soil in circles around boles needs to be weeded all the summertime long, in order it would not overgrown with weeds or lawn grass. To maintain moisture and good soil structure You should mulch it with peat or sifted compost in layers of about 5 cm.

Tree Pruning


During active growth at the beginning of the summer the young fruit should be well watered. Depending on the amount of rainfall and the nature of the soil in the first half of the summer the trees should be watered from three to five times a day. In dry years, and at the south regions with a shortage of rain – up to seven – eight times or more.

Watering should be abundant, to wet the soil to a depth of at least half a meter. The average rate of quantity of water per square meter of the soil in circles around boles compiles about 2-3 buckets.

In the first year of bedding out for each watering of one plant 2-3 buckets of water should be diffused. Later on the watering rate should be increasing in the one-two buckets yearly. For a 5-6-year-old tree should be poured on average 7-8 buckets of water, and for a 8-10 year-old tree – 10-15 buckets of water. You should diffuse less water for the plants bedded out on light-textured soils, and on the contrary much more often for plants on heavy -textured soils.

In some years in the central and northern areas due to the abundance of moisture in late summer the growth of trees delayed, the wood didn’t grow ripen and perished from light frosts. To protect fruit plants, You should stop watering them in August and only in October, with the beginning of leaf fall, when autumn is dry You should proceed with supplemental irrigation – three buckets per square meter, evenly distributing moisture on the soil in circles around boles. For more information on tree pruning have a look at this great resource.